Energy End-Use Forecasting
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Residential Miscellaneous Electricity

Project Description

Historically, residential energy and carbon saving efforts have targeted conventional end uses such as water heating, lighting and refrigeration. The emergence of new household appliances has transformed energy use from a few large and easily identifiable end uses into a broad array of "miscellaneous" energy services. Miscellaneous electricity is a diverse end use category which includes household appliances such as TVs, VCRs, waterbed heaters, and even electric toothbrushes.

We use industry shipment data, lifetimes, and wattage and usage estimates of over 90 individual products to construct a bottom-up end use model (1976-2010). The model is then used to analyze historical and forecasted growth trends, and to identify the largest individual products within the miscellaneous end use.

We also use the end use model to identify and analyze policy priorities. In 1995, miscellaneous electricity accounted for about one fifth of residential electricity use, 235 TWh. From 1996-2010, we project that miscellaneous electricity will account for 90% of all future residential electricity growth, 115 TWh. Consumer electronics and halogen torchiere lamps are forecasted to account for 70% of miscellaneous growth.

Approximately 20% of miscellaneous electricity is consumed while appliances are in standby mode. Nearly all of standby consumption is attributed to consumer electronic product types. Surprisingly, about half of all consumer electronics energy is actually consumed while the products are technically "off".

About $1 billion, ˜20 TWh, could be saved in the U.S. annually if existing technology were applied to all household appliances that "leak" electricity. An additional 20 TWh of annual savings can be achieved by replacing halogen torchieres with compact fluorescent lamps developed in 1996 by Berkeley Lab researchers.

Project Staff

Lead - Marla Sanchez - Data Collection, End Use Modeling and Analysis

Jonathan Koomey - Analysis

Mithra Moezzi - End Use Forecasting and Model Comparison

Alan Meier - Data Collection

Wolfgang Huber - Data Collection

Carrie Webber - Data Collection

Key Data

Appendices (except A, B and G)- Excel 5.0 workbook

Appendix A - Deltagraph 4.0 file

Appendix B - Excel 5.0 workbook

Appendix G - Deltagraph 4.0 file

Misc. products ranked by consumption and growth- Excel 5.0 workbook


Sanchez, Marla C., Jonathan G. Koomey, Mithra M. Moezzi, Alan K. Meier, and Wolfgang Huber. 1998. "Miscellaneous Electricity Use in U.S. Homes: Historical Decomposition and Future Trends." Energy Policy. vol. 26, no. 8. p. 585-593 (also LBNL-40295).

Sanchez, Marla C., J.G. Koomey, M.M. Moezzi, A. Meier, and W. Huber. 1998. "Miscellaneous electricity use in the U.S. homes,".to be published in Proceedings of the ACEEE 1998 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Washington,DC: American Council for an Energy-Efficiency Economy. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 83K PDF

Sanchez, Marla C., J.G. Koomey, M.M. Moezzi, A.K. Meier and W. Huber. 1998. Miscellaneous electricity use in the U.S. residential sector. LBNL-40295. Abstract | "Rage for Aquaria". Home Energy (September/October).

Other Resources

Leaking Electricity Page at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Koomey, J., Trends in Carbon Emissions from U.S. Residential and Commercial Buildings: Implications for Policy Priorities. LBNL-39421. June 1996. Abstract | 68K PDF .

Meier, A.K., Greenberg, S.E., and Rainer, L.I. 1992. "Emerging Miscellaneous Uses of Electricity in Homes." Residential Performance: Analysis and Measurement - Proceedings from the ACEEE 1992 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Volume 4, pp. 4.141-4.143. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C.

Meier, A.K., Rainer L.I., and Greenberg, S.E. 1992. "Miscellaneous Electrical Energy Use in Homes". Energy, 17(5): 509-518.

Meier, A.K. 1987. "Saving the "Other" Energy in Homes". Energy Auditor and Retrofitterr, Nov/Dec: 13-19.

Nore, D. and M. Roberts. 1994. "Miscellaneous Residential Electrical End-uses: US Historical Growth and Regional Differences." In Proceedings of the 1994 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 7:179-188. Washington, D.C: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.

Rainer, L., S. Greenberg, and A., Meier. 1995. You Won't Find these Leaks With A Blower Door: The Latest In "Leaking Electricity" in Homes. Davis Energy Group.

Koomey, J., M. Piette, M. Cramer, and J. Eto. 1995. Efficiency Improvements in U.S. Office Equipment: Expected Policy Impacts and Uncertainties. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. LBL-37383. Executive Summary | 664K PDF

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TEMA Group Site The Enduse Forecasting Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
 Last Updated On: 8/19/04