Energy End-Use Forecasting
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Residential Energy Efficiency Standards

Project Description

The two reports summarized on this page investigated the likely effects of minimum efficiency standards. The first is a detailed assessment of the Effect of Efficiency Standards on Water Use and Water Heating Energy Use in the U.S., while the second is a comprehensive treatment of the likely energy, dollar, and carbon saving impacts of appliance efficiency standards in the U.S. residential sector. Both analyses rely on the most detailed market and technology data available, and are exhaustively documented.

Water heating

Water heating is an important end-use, accounting for roughly 16% of total primary energy consumption in the US residential sector. Recently enacted efficiency standards on water heaters and hot water-using equipment (e.g., dishwashers, clothes washers, showerheads, and faucets) will substantially affect the energy use of water heaters in the future. In order to quantify these impacts, this paper presents a detailed end-use breakdown of household hot and cold water use developed for the US Department of Energy. We disaggregate total hot and cold water use (gallons per day) into their component parts: showers, baths, faucets (flow dominated and volume dominated), toilets, landscaping/other, dishwashers, and clotheswashers. We then use the end-use breakdown and data on equipment characteristics to assess the impacts of current efficiency standards on hot water use and water heater energy consumption.

All residential efficiency standards

This analysis assesses the potential energy, dollar, and carbon impacts of residential efficiency standards at the state and national levels. In this assessment, we use historical and projected shipments of equipment, a detailed stock accounting model, measured and estimated unit energy savings associated with the standards, estimated incremental capital costs, demographic data, and fuel price data at the finest level of geographic disaggregation available. We explicitly account for improvements in efficiency likely to occur in the absence of standards, but because our method for characterizing these exogenous improvements probably overestimates them, both the energy and cost savings presented in this report represent lower bounds to the true benefits.

Efficiency standards in the residential sector have been a highly cost-effective policy instrument for promoting energy efficiency. Projected cumulative present-valued dollar savings after subtracting out the additional cost of the more efficient equipment are about $33 billion from 1990 to 2010. Projected carbon reductions are approximately 9 million metric tons of carbon/year from 2000 through 2010, an amount roughly equal to 4% of carbon emissions in 1990. Because these standards save energy at a cost less than the price of that energy, the resulting carbon emission reductions are achieved at negative net cost to society. Minimum efficiency standards reduce pollution and save money at the same time.

Project Staff

Lead - Jonathan G. Koomey

Camilla Dunham

James D. Lutz

James E. McMahon

Carrie A. Webber

Key Data

Summary of Residential Efficiency Standards - Jan 1998 | Word 5.1 for Macintosh | Word 6 for PC

Appendix D - Input Data | Excel 5.0 workbook

Appendix E - Output Results | Excel 5.0 workbook


Koomey, Jonathan G., Camilla Dunham, and James D. Lutz. 1994. The Effect of Efficiency Standards on Water Use and Water Heating Energy Use in the U.S.: A Detailed End-use Treatment. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. LBL-35475. May. Abstract | 64K PDF

Koomey, Jonathan G., Susan A. Mahler, Carrie A. Webber, and James E. McMahon. 1998. Projected Regional Impacts of Appliance Efficiency Standards for the U.S. Residential Sector. Berkeley, CA: Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL-39511. February. Abstract | 314K PDF

Other Resources

LBNL Energy Efficiency Standards Group (responsible for analyzing appliances standards for U.S. Department of Energy Rulemakings).

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Codes and Standards

Energy Star energy conservation energy savings energy efficiency environment climate change weatherization solar energy appliances energy audit energy tools efficient buildings energy education heating cooling heat pumps furnaces boilers air conditioners insulation ducts skylights windows thermostats fuel switching mechanical ventilation water heater water heating refrigerator freezer dishwasher clotheswasher clothes dryer miscellaneous energy home energy comfort remodeling residential energy.

TEMA Group Site The Enduse Forecasting Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
 Last Updated On: 8/19/04